United Nations Population Division, Replacement Migration
The present study considers countries in which current fertility ranges from 1.2 to 2.0 children per woman. For France, the United Kingdom, the United States and the European Union, the number of migrants needed to offset population decline is less than or comparable to recent past experience. While this is also the case for Germany and the Russian Federation, their migration flows in the 1990s were relatively large due to reunification and dissolution respectively. In contrast, for Italy, Japan, the Republic of Korea and Europe, a level of immigration much higher than that experienced in the recent past would be needed to offset population decline. As a result of this higher level of immigration for Italy, Japan and Europe, 18 to 29 per cent of the 2050 population would be post-1995 immigrants and their descendants; for the Republic of Korea, the comparable figure is 3 per cent.